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Some 40% of companies now try to fight bias with mandatory hiring tests assessing the skills of candidates for frontline jobs. But managers don’t like being told that they can’t hire whomever they please, and our research suggests that they often use the tests selectively. Back in the 1950s, following the postwar migration of blacks northward, Swift Company, Chicago meatpackers, instituted tests for supervisor and quality-checking jobs. One study found managers telling blacks that they had failed the test and then promoting whites who hadn’t been tested. A black machine operator reported: “I had four years at Englewood High School. I took an exam for a checker’s job. The foreman told me I failed” and gave the job to a white man who “didn’t take the exam.”

This kind of thing still happens. When we interviewed the new HR director at a West Coast food company, he said he found that white managers were making only strangers—most of them minorities—take supervisor tests and hiring white friends without testing them. “If you are going to test one person for this particular job title,” he told us, “you need to test everybody.”

But even managers who test everyone applying for a position may ignore the results. Investment banks and consulting firms build tests into their job interviews, asking people to solve math and scenario-based problems on the spot. While studying this practice, Kellogg professor Lauren Rivera played a fly on the wall during hiring meetings at one firm. Shop Cheap Price Studded Leather Thong Sandals Prices For Sale Sz3UYsp
that the team paid little attention when white men blew the math test but close attention when women and blacks did. Because decision makers (deliberately or not) cherry-picked results, the testing amplified bias rather than quashed it.

Managers made only strangers—most of them minorities—take tests and hired white friends without testing them.

Companies that institute written job tests for managers—about 10% have them today—see decreases of 4% to 10% in the share of managerial jobs held by white women, African-American men and women, Hispanic men and women, and Asian-American women over the next five years. There are significant declines among white and Asian-American women—groups with high levels of education, which typically score well on standard managerial tests. So group differences in test-taking skills don’t explain the pattern.

More than 90% of midsize and large companies use annual performance ratings to ensure that managers make fair pay and promotion decisions. Identifying and rewarding the best workers isn’t the only goal—the ratings also provide a litigation shield. Companies sued for discrimination often claim that their performance rating systems prevent biased treatment.

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that raters tend to lowball women and minorities in performance reviews. And some managers give everyone high marks to avoid hassles with employees or to keep their options open when handing out promotions. However managers work around performance systems, the bottom line is that ratings don’t boost diversity. When companies introduce them, there’s no effect on minority managers over the next five years, and the share of white women in management drops by 4%, on average.

In August 2016, German authorities began surveillance of Identitare Bewegung (IBD)—the Identity Movement for Germany, an anti-Islamic and xenophobic movement with its origins in France. In August 2016, German security services began monitoring IBD in Saxony and eight other states. IBD supporters have reportedly interwoven themselves with PEGIDA. Authorities noted the presence IBD flags and propaganda during and following a July 2016 PEGIDA rally in Leipzig, Saxony. (Sources: World Politics Review , Free Shipping Enjoy Outlet Big Sale Tommy Hilfiger Everly 3Eye Mesh Sneaker Sale Marketable Good Selling For Sale Z2YQm2XPi
, Deutsche Welle )

According to the NGO Mut Gegen Rechte Gewalt (Courage Against Right-Wing Violence), there were 561 attacks against refugees in Saxony between January 2015 and October 2016.

Groups like PEGIDA have made anti-Muslim immigration a central focus. For example, one PEGIDA protest leader at a February 2016 rally declared, “We must succeed in guarding and controlling Europe’s external borders as well as its internal borders once again.” An October 2016 PEGIDA rally in Dresden to mark the group’s second anniversary drew an estimated 6,500 to 8,500 people. (Sources: Discount Cheap Fashion Style New Balance MXC900 Hurry Up Outlet Visit New The Cheapest Cheap Price Z8EGra
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, Reuters )

Neo-Nazi violence and sympathies have steadily risen in Saxony since Germany’s 1990 reunification. Neo-Nazi groups began organizing annual marches in Dresden in 1999. Between 2000 and 2007, the Saxony-based far-right terrorist group National Socialist Underground murdered 10 people, mostly Turkish immigrants, in what Spiegel Online called a “nationwide killing spree.” In Saxony’s June 2008 municipal elections, the neo-Nazi NPD won 5.1 percent of the vote, though the group has since lost its representation. (Sources: Burberry Canvas Check Espadrilles Size 43 Brown Cheap Sale Fake Clearance Outlet Discount Footlocker JdJMe
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, New York Times )

German counter-extremism professionals have likened right-wing extremism to Islamic extremism. According to Thomas Mücke of the Berlin-based Violence Prevention Network (VPN), “They are both fascist ideologies. One is using a certain idea of the nation, the other is using religion as its instrument.” VPN and groups like it developed individually tailored interventions for neo-Nazis, which they now use to address Islamic extremism as well. However, the neo-Nazi movement has shifted to include anti-immigrant propaganda and violence, such as a September 2016 street fight between about 100 neo-Nazis chanting “Bautzen for Germans only” and 20 asylum-seekers in Saxony’s Bautzen. According to Marcus Kemper of the Saxon cultural office, right-wing extremist assaults increased by 90 percent between 2014 and 2016. Kemper blamed the anti-immigrant stance of groups like PEGIDA, which he called “a catalyst for neo-Nazis and other racists.” (Sources: Foreign Affairs , Christian Science Monitor , SPEED TR 20 Sports shoes rich magma/black/red Cheap Deals Free Shipping Cheap Online Factory Outlet Sale Online Clearance 2018 YNkgWZxF
, Deutsche Welle )

EuropeanSouthernObservatory

eso1814 — Science Release

9 May 2018

An international team of astronomers has used ESO telescopes to investigate a relic of the primordial Solar System. The team found that the unusual Kuiper Belt Object 2004 EW95 is a carbon-rich asteroid, the first of its kind to be confirmed in the cold outer reaches of the Solar System. This curious object likely formed in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter and has been flung billions of kilometres from its origin to its current home in the Kuiper Belt.

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. In particular, these models suggest that the Kuiper Belt — a cold region beyond the orbit of Neptune — should contain a small fraction of rocky bodies from the inner Solar System, such as carbon-rich asteroids, referred to as carbonaceous asteroids [2] .

Now, a recent paper has presented evidence for the first reliably-observed carbonaceous asteroid in the Kuiper Belt, providing strong support for these theoretical models of our Solar System’s troubled youth. After painstaking measurements from multiple instruments at ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT), a small team of astronomers led by Tom Seccull of Queen’s University Belfast in the UK was able to measure the composition of the anomalous Kuiper Belt Object 2004 EW 95 , and thus determine that it is a carbonaceous asteroid. This suggests that it originally formed in the inner Solar System and must have since migrated outwards [3] .

The peculiar nature of 2004 EW 95 first came to light during routine observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope by Wesley Fraser, an astronomer from Queen’s University Belfast who was also amember of the team behind this discovery. The asteroid’s Discount Manchester Great Sale Kenneth Cole Reaction Screen Slide To Buy Professional Sale Online wLIvsVTXiY
— the specific pattern of wavelengths of light reflected from an object — was different to that of similar small Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs), which typically have uninteresting, featureless spectra that reveal little information about their composition.

The reflectance spectrum of 2004 EW 95 was clearly distinct from the other observed outer Solar System objects, ” explains lead author Seccull. “ It looked enough of a weirdo for us to take a closer look.

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allowed the team to obtain more detailed measurements of the pattern of light reflected from the asteroid and thus infer its composition.

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